关联对象参考

class RelatedManager

A “related manager” is a manager used in a one-to-many or many-to-many related context. This happens in two cases:

  • The “other side” of a ForeignKey relation. That is:

    class Reporter(models.Model):
        ...
    
    class Article(models.Model):
        reporter = models.ForeignKey(Reporter)
    

    In the above example, the methods below will be available on the manager reporter.article_set.

  • Both sides of a ManyToManyField relation:

    class Topping(models.Model):
        ...
    
    class Pizza(models.Model):
        toppings = models.ManyToManyField(Topping)
    

    In this example, the methods below will be available both on topping.pizza_set and on pizza.toppings.

These related managers have some extra methods:

add(obj1[, obj2, ...])

Adds the specified model objects to the related object set.

Example:

>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1)
>>> e = Entry.objects.get(id=234)
>>> b.entry_set.add(e) # Associates Entry e with Blog b.
create(**kwargs)

Creates a new object, saves it and puts it in the related object set. Returns the newly created object:

>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1)
>>> e = b.entry_set.create(
...     headline='Hello',
...     body_text='Hi',
...     pub_date=datetime.date(2005, 1, 1)
... )

# No need to call e.save() at this point -- it's already been saved.

This is equivalent to (but much simpler than):

>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1)
>>> e = Entry(
...     blog=b,
...     headline='Hello',
...     body_text='Hi',
...     pub_date=datetime.date(2005, 1, 1)
... )
>>> e.save(force_insert=True)

Note that there’s no need to specify the keyword argument of the model that defines the relationship. In the above example, we don’t pass the parameter blog to create(). Django figures out that the new Entry object’s blog field should be set to b.

remove(obj1[, obj2, ...])

Removes the specified model objects from the related object set:

>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1)
>>> e = Entry.objects.get(id=234)
>>> b.entry_set.remove(e) # Disassociates Entry e from Blog b.

In order to prevent database inconsistency, this method only exists on ForeignKey objects where null=True. If the related field can’t be set to None (NULL), then an object can’t be removed from a relation without being added to another. In the above example, removing e from b.entry_set() is equivalent to doing e.blog = None, and because the blog ForeignKey doesn’t have null=True, this is invalid.

clear()

Removes all objects from the related object set:

>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1)
>>> b.entry_set.clear()

Note this doesn’t delete the related objects – it just disassociates them.

Just like remove(), clear() is only available on ForeignKeys where null=True.